The proteins are one of the major building blocks of the body. The proteins are needed for strengthening the muscles as well as building a smart brain. The brains’ neurons tend to produce certain proteins while we learn and also help form new connections between the neurons. Even if there is a slight damage in the protein synthesis it leads to a list of defects in learning, memory, and also brain development.
In the human body around 20,000 distinct proteins are made, destroyed, and again remade in different cell types at different rates or times depending on the need. The father of proteins is a multifarious molecular machine named ribosomes, which is present in all living cells. The thorough research and studying in this field has helped the researchers detail out the structures as well as the functionalities of the various proteins formed in the body. The ribosomes different structures based on their composition and specialization helps them form proteins using the genetic information obtained. According to Dr. Ravi Muddashetty from InStem, the distinct markers help differentiate ribosomes which are specialized in producing unique proteins sets that may be linked to play a role in the development of the nervous system. The specialized operational hub uses the genetic message obtained to form proteins and this proteins and RNAs carrying tool is very complex and intense factory. The ribosomes have the same function but only vary in their proteins formed based on their own composition and genetic message. In the protein synthesis regulation, the addition of modification takes the protein synthesis to another level of complexity.
The 2’O-methylations, ribosomal RNA, if altered in the absence of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) can have a huge impact as it is needed for a normal cognitive development. Any mutations in these can lead to developmental delays of the nervous system and intellectual disability. However, looking at the current study, the team plans to understand the mechanism that connects FMRP’s interaction with ribosomes that regulate protein synthesis and later signal the conditions such as Fragile-X syndrome and other cognitive dearths.